Beginner’s Guide to Customer Segmentation




In this publish I’m going to discuss one thing that is comparatively easy however basic to nearly any enterprise: Customer Segmentation. At the core of buyer segmentation is having the ability to determine various kinds of clients after which work out methods to discover extra of these people so you possibly can… you guessed it, get extra clients!


In this publish, I’ll element how you should utilize Ok-Means clustering to assist with a few of the exploratory features of buyer segmentation. I’ll be strolling by means of the instance utilizing Yhat’s personal Python IDE, Rodeo, which you’ll be able to obtain for Windows, Mac or Linux right here. If you are utilizing a Windows machine, Rodeo ships with Python (by way of Continuum’s Miniconda). How handy!


Our Data


The information we’re utilizing comes from John Foreman’s guide Data Smart. The dataset accommodates each data on advertising newsletters/e-mail campaigns (e-mail affords despatched) and transaction degree information from clients (which supply clients responded to and what they purchased).


import pandas as pd

df_offers = pd.read_excel("./WineKMC.xlsx", sheetname=0)
df_offers.columns = ["offer_id", "campaign", "varietal", "min_qty", "discount", "origin", "past_peak"]
  offer_id marketing campaign varietal min_qty low cost origin past_peak
0 1 January Malbec 72 56 France False
1 2 January Pinot Noir 72 17 France False
2 3 February Espumante 144 32 Oregon True
3 4 February Champagne 72 48 France True
4 5 February Cabernet Sauvignon 144 44 New Zealand True


And the transaction degree information…


df_transactions = pd.read_excel("./WineKMC.xlsx", sheetname=1)
df_transactions.columns = ["customer_name", "offer_id"]
df_transactions['n'] = 1
  customer_name offer_id n
0 Smith 2 1
1 Smith 24 1
2 Johnson 17 1
3 Johnson 24 1
4 Johnson 26 1


Inside of Rodeo, that’ll look one thing like…




If you are new to Rodeo, be aware that you would be able to transfer and resize tabs, so when you want a side-by-side editor and terminal format, otherwise you need to make the editor full display screen, you possibly can.


You can even copy and save the formatted outputs in your historical past tab, like the information frames we produced above.


A fast Ok-Means primer


In order to phase our clients, we’d like a method to evaluate them. To do that we’re going to use Ok-Means clustering. Ok-means is a method of taking a dataset and discovering teams (or clusters) of factors which have comparable properties. Ok-means works by grouping the factors collectively in such a method that the space between all of the factors and the midpoint of the cluster they belong to is minimized.


Think of the only doable instance. If I advised you to create Three teams for the factors under and draw a star the place the center of every group could be, what would you do?




Probably (or hopefully) one thing like this…




In Ok-Means communicate, the “x”‘s are referred to as “centroids” and point out (you guessed it), the middle of a given cluster. I’m not going to go into the ins and outs of what Ok-Means is definitely doing below the hood, however hopefully this illustration provides you a good suggestion.


Clustering our clients


Okay, so how does clustering apply to our clients? Well since we’re attempting to study extra about how our clients behave, we will use their habits (whether or not or not they bought one thing primarily based on a suggestion) as a method to group comparable minded clients collectively. We can then research these teams to search for patterns and traits which may also help us formulate future affords.


The very first thing we’d like is a method to evaluate clients. To do that, we’re going to create a matrix that accommodates every buyer and a 0/1 indicator for whether or not or not they responded to a given supply. This is straightforward sufficient to do in Python:


# be part of the affords and transactions desk
df = pd.merge(df_offers, df_transactions)
# create a "pivot table" which can give us the variety of occasions every buyer responded to a given supply
matrix = df.pivot_table(index=['customer_name'], columns=['offer_id'], values='n')
# a bit of tidying up. fill NA values with Zero and make the index right into a column
matrix = matrix.fillna(0).reset_index()
# save a listing of the 0/1 columns. we'll use these a bit later
x_cols = matrix.columns[1:]


Now to create the clusters, we’re going to use the OkMeans performance from scikit-learn. I arbitrarily selected 5 clusters. My normal rule of thumb is to have no less than 7x as many information as I do clusters.


from sklearn.cluster import OkMeans

cluster = OkMeans(n_clusters=5)
# slice matrix so we solely embody the 0/1 indicator columns within the clustering
matrix['cluster'] = cluster.fit_predict(matrix[matrix.columns[2:]])



Notice that in Rodeo, you possibly can view the histogram within the terminal, historical past or plots tab. If you are engaged on a number of screens, you possibly can even come out the plot into its personal window.





Visualizing the clusters


A very cool trick that the most likely did not train you in class is Principal Component Analysis. There are a lot of makes use of for it, however right this moment we’re going to use it to remodel our multi-dimensional dataset right into a 2 dimensional dataset. Why you ask? Well as soon as it’s in 2 dimensions (or just put, it has 2 columns), it turns into a lot simpler to plot!


Once once more, scikit-learn comes to the rescue!


from sklearn.decomposition import PCA

pca = PCA(n_components=2)
matrix['x'] = pca.fit_transform(matrix[x_cols])[:,0]
matrix['y'] = pca.fit_transform(matrix[x_cols])[:,1]
matrix = matrix.reset_index()

customer_clusters = matrix[['customer_name', 'cluster', 'x', 'y']]
offer_id customer_name cluster x y
0 Adams 2 -1.007580 0.108215
1 Allen 4 0.287539 0.044715
2 Anderson 1 0.392032 1.038391
3 Bailey 2 -0.699477 -0.022542
4 Baker 3 -0.088183 -0.471695


What we have performed is we have taken these x_cols columns of 0/1 indicator variables, and we have remodeled them right into a 2-D dataset. We took one column and arbitrarily referred to as it x after which referred to as the opposite y. Now we will throw every level right into a scatterplot. We’ll shade code every level primarily based on it is cluster so it is simpler to see them.


df = pd.merge(df_transactions, customer_clusters)
df = pd.merge(df_offers, df)

from ggplot import *

ggplot(df, aes(x='x', y='y', shade='cluster')) + 
 geom_point(dimension=75) + 
 ggtitle("Customers Grouped by Cluster")




If you need to get fancy, you may also plot the facilities of the clusters as effectively. These are saved within the OkMeans occasion utilizing the cluster_centers_ variable. Make certain that you simply additionally remodel the cluster facilities into the 2-D projection.


cluster_centers = pca.remodel(cluster.cluster_centers_)
cluster_centers = pd.DataBody(cluster_centers, columns=['x', 'y'])
cluster_centers['cluster'] = vary(0, len(cluster_centers))

ggplot(df, aes(x='x', y='y', shade='cluster')) + 
 geom_point(dimension=75) + 
 geom_point(cluster_centers, dimension=500) +
 ggtitle("Customers Grouped by Cluster")




Digging deeper into the clusters


Let’s dig a bit of deeper into the clusters. Take cluster Four for instance. If we get away cluster Four and evaluate it to the remaining clients, we will begin to search for fascinating aspects that we would give you the chance to exploit.


As a baseline, check out the varietal counts for cluster Four vs. everybody else. It seems that just about the entire Cabernet Sauvignon affords had been bought by members of cluster 4. In addition, not one of the Espumante affords had been bought by members of cluster 4.


df['is_4'] = df.cluster==4


is_4 varietal rely
False Champagne 45
Espumante 40
Prosecco 37
Pinot Noir 37
Malbec 17
Pinot Grigio 16
Merlot 8
Cabernet Sauvignon 6
Chardonnay 4
True Champagne 36
Cabernet Sauvignon 26
Malbec 15
Merlot 12
Chardonnay 11
Pinot Noir 7
Prosecco 6
Pinot Grigio 1


You can even phase out numerical options. For occasion, take a look at how the imply of the min_qty subject breaks out between Four vs. non-4. It looks like members of cluster Four like to by in bulk!


df.groupby("is_4")[['min_qty', 'discount']].imply()
  min_qty low cost
False 47.685484 59.120968
True 93.394737 60.657895



wine-in-bulk.jpgSend a bulk Cab Sav supply Cluster 4’s method!


Final Thoughts


While it isn’t going to magically inform you all of the solutions, clustering is a superb exploratory train that may enable you to study extra about your clients. For extra information on Ok-Means and buyer segmentation, try these sources:


Code for this publish may be discovered right here.


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